Introduction Of Textile Raw- material..

Introduction Of Textile Raw- material..
It is defined as one of the delicate, hair portions of the tissues of a plant or animal or other substances that are very small in diameter in relation to there length. A fiber is a material which is several hundred times as long as its thick.

Textile Fibre:
Textile fiber has some characteristics which differ between fiber to Textile fiber. Textile fiber can be spun into a yarn or made into a fabric by various methods including weaving, knitting, braiding, felting, and twisting. The essential requirements for fibers to be spun into yarn include a length of at least 5 millimeters, flexibility, cohesiveness, and sufficient strength. Other important properties include elasticity, fineness, uniformity, durability, and luster.

Banana fiber is one kind of fiber but it is not a textile fiber. Because it can not fill up the above properties. So we can say that all fiber are not textile fiber.

Fibers are natural or chemical structure that can be spun into yarn.
Classification of Textile Fiber (Based on sourcing):
Natural Fiber: 
Natural fibers include those produced by plants, animals, and geological processes. They are biodegradable over time. They can be classified according to their origin.
A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) of: 
(1) animal (i.e., silk fiber and wool fiber); 
(2) mineral (i.e., asbestos fiber); or
(3) vegetable origin (i.e., cotton fiberflax fiberjute fiber, and ramie fiber).

Manmade Fiber:
It is also known as Manufactured fiber. Synthetic or man-made fibers generally come from synthetic materials such as petrochemicals. But some types of synthetic fibers are manufactured from natural cellulose; including rayon, modal, and the more recently developed Lyocell. 
A class name for various genera of fibers (including filaments) produced from fiber-forming substances which may be: 
(1) Polymers synthesized from chemical compounds, e.g., acrylic fibernylon fiberpolyester fiber, polyethylene fiber, polyurethane fiber, and polyvinyl fibers; 
(2) Modified or transformed natural polymers, e.g., alginic and cellulose-based fibers such as acetates fiber and rayons fiber; and 
(3) Minerals, e.g., glasses. The term manufactured usually refers to all chemically produced fibers to distinguish them from the truly natural fibers such as cotton, wool, silk, flax, etc.e.g: Glass fiber,
Classification of Textile Fiber (Based on fiber’s length):
Fibers identification:
  1. Burning Test/ Flammability Test
(Hair burn smell)
(Petrol & plastic burn smell)
(Paper burn smell)
     2. Chemical Test
     3.  Microscopic Test
(-) Alkalis
(+) Alkalis
(+) Alkalis
(DNA or Cell Structure) 
  • Note on Wool fiber: Wool does not burn others and does not spread the fire. It just burn and shrink. It has good capability to resist acid. Its shrinkage percentage (%) is high that’s why we don’t prefer wet processing.
  • Note on Acrylic fiber: It is a petroleum product.
  • Note on Cotton fiber: When it burns smell seems paper burning because paper and cotton both made from vegetable material plant.