What is Screen Printing, Tools & Materials Requirement for Screen Print?

What is Screen Printing, Tools & Materials Requirement for Screen Print?


Screen Printing
Normally all kind of prints (manual screen, flat bed print, rotary print & auto machine print)  which is used for garments printing are called screen print because in all these print we used screen. 
The most common four technique of print is
  • Manual Screen print (In this kind of prints, scraper pulled by a human)
Please find below some link related with the screen print:
  •  Auto Machine prints. (New technology, In this kind of prints, scraper pulled by Machine)
  • Flat bed print (In this kind of prints, scraper pulled by Machine)
  • Rotary Screen print (No scraper)
Though the most (manual screen, flat bed printing, rotary print etc) of the printing type are related with screen but here I will called the manual screen printing as a “Screen Print”
The screen print is the most common technique of printing. More than 90 percent printing factory are used this technique.
A blade squeezes the printing paste through openings in the screen onto the fabric.



Sequence of Screen Printing Section:

Design development
Screen making/exposer
Color making
Prepare for approval
Design Development:
Buyers give a design for printing to print department. Designer develops a design of color wise according to print design sheet. Different colored design print in different film paper.
Screen Preparation:
At first mesh fabric tight with frame and then attach photo emulsion coating and drying. After drying film paper add with screen by light and pressure.
Color Preparation:
All printing pastes whether containing colouring matter or not are known technically as colours.
Colours vary considerably in composition. All printing colours require thickening, for the two-fold object of enabling them to be transferred from colour-box to cloth without loss and to prevent them from running or spreading beyond the limits of the pattern.
Prepare for approval/strike off:
Before going to bulk production, make a sample for approval according to buyer demand.
After get approval of strike of then go for bulk production.


Structural requirement for a print factory:

1) Building: The building should be like a hall room or square. We prefer a one storied tin shade building. It can be 2 or 3 storied building but it must be a long floor with air existing fan.
2) Printing table: There should be printing table (on which we will lay down the cut fabric for the print). Normally we found 2 type of printing table in Bangladesh. I) Matt or rack sine table ii) Glass table. In both type of table the base and frame is made by iron but in the table surface we used matt paper for matte table and glass for the glass table. Glass table is most costly than matte table. But print quality is much much better in Glass table than matte table. Printing capacity is depend on the table quantity & length. Normally we make the table with a width of 4.5’ (feet) and 80’ (feet) length. A print factory with 5 tables (each table 80’) can be produced 10,000 pcs pre day. We should make the table especially if we want to use Auto move dryer machine. We also arrange enough power sources for use the normal dryer machine. We must arrange enough lighting on top of the printing table.

3) Color Room: In the color room the color master make the requested the color by mixing the various type of chemical.

4) Camera room: Actually I don’t know the exact or correct name of this room. But heard they call it camera room. Where the camera man shot the screen (prepare the screen for making print) by use of a light sourcing glass table.

5) Screen making & store room: A print factory need to keep so many for production, sample, and previous production. Also they need place for attached the mesh with the printing frame. Also they need a dark place for make the mesh of frame light sensitive.

6) Chemical store room: In a printing factory we need huge quantity of chemical. For store these chemical in proper way.

7) Curing room: For fixed printed body parts with heat of curing machine we need a curing room. It can be a open area. Here we can put a belt curing machine or several heat presses curing machine. A belt curing machine is very costly then a heat press curing machine. The heat press curing machine is most needed for the “Foil print” and “Discharge print”.

8) Quality & alter room: After finished the print qc will the check print parts & can be pass, rectify or reject the print complete part. Also here the QC teams check the incoming body parts before start print for avoiding the future problem.

9) Electric power source & heavy wearing: We need a high capacity electric supplying source because belt curing machine, heat press curing machine, normal dryer machine & auto move dryer machine consume a large number of electric watt or unit. Also for this reason we need heavy electric wearing.
Requirement of Machinery's & Tools for screen print
Machineries & Tools (Electrical, Mechanical & None Mechanical or Manual Tools)

1) Generator: As the present situation of electric supply in Bangladesh is very poor so we must need the high capacity generator for continuous electric supply. It should have enough capacity for run the belt curing machine, heat press curing machine, Auto move dryer & light source.

2) Curing machine: It can be belt curing (one piece is enough) or heat press curing machine (minimum 02 machines) or both.
3) Dryer machine: It can be normal dryer (4 pcs for per table) or auto move dryer (one piece for per table) or both.
4) Frame: Frame is the main item for making a print. Frame can be made by tin or steel or other light but heavy metal. The frame size can be vary depends on dimension of the print design. But it must be beyond the table width or exceed the width of the print table.A frame also has a angle & two scrub nut which is use for the adjust the design with the print table.
Normally a print factory makes ready stock of several frames in various sizes. Print factories normally keep a stock of more than 500 frames.

5) Mesh fabric: We also need the mesh fabric for turn the frame in screen. There is several quality of mesh fabric in market. We used different quality of mesh fabric for different type of print.
6) Bamboo stick: We need narrow well finished bamboo stick to hang on printed cut fabric. Many times the print color takes several hours to become dry completely so we need to hang on these printed pcs. For a 5 table printed factory we need maximum 400 hundred bamboo stick.

7) Liquid gun: Q.C team will use these guns for removing the spot. Also need these guns for prepared the screen for print (after shot). 4 pcs Gun is enough for a middle class print factory.
Requirement of Chemical & man power for a screen print factory
1) Basic color: To make different type of color shade we need several basic colors. Color master make buyer requested color after mixing these basic color.

2) Fixing Chemical or Re agent: Actually during the color making we mix up several types of chemical or re agent for protect the color against washing, lighting & from color bleeding. It is very important for quality printing. Also print factory use Photo sensitive chemical for prepare the frame, they called it HP.

3) Crack print, puff print & discharge print: Print factory also use some specific chemical for some special type of print. Such as crack print, puff print & discharge print.

4) Rubber paste: Normally for the rubber, print factories use different kind of rubber as per buyer quality requirement of the print.

5) Different type of Gum: In a print factory we mainly use three type of gum in various processes. Such as in the printing table, on the frame to attach the mesh fabric, and in the flock & foil print. After two or three weeks generally we repast the gum in the printing table. This time period can reduce if we print on fleece fabric regularly. We all so used the kerosene oil and detergent for clean the table.

6) Flock powder: For flock print the print factory use flock powder. Flock powder is mainly two kind i) Cotton flock & ii) Polyester flock. Some time we got it as per our requested color from the market. And some time we mix up the powder with view to get our requested color.

7) Foil paper: For foil print the print factory use foil paper. Foil paper comes in roll with various width & color.

8) Glitter & Afson: For glitter & afson print the printers use glitter & afson powder with color in certain ratio.

9) Studs & strass: Print factory some time used these stone in the print as per buyer request.

10) Others: Also the print factory used various type of chemical to make the print as requested. Such as Fluorescent & neon effect in the print.


1) Color master (01)
2) Designer 01) He can be Freelancer.
3) Production manger (01)
4) Supervisor (02)
5) Q,A (03)
6) Screen man (05 to 10)
7) Laymen (10)
8) Dryer man (06)
9) Curing man (02)
10) Camera man (01)
11) Helper (15)
12) Delivery man (03)